« Law-Train » : BACBI’s letter to Ms. Federica Mogherini and Mr. Carlos Moedas

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Nevele (Belgium), March 8, 2017.

To : Ms. Federica Mogherini, High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and Vice-President of the European Commission,
European Commission,
To : Mr. Carlos Moedas, Commissioner for Research, Science and Innovation, European Commission, rue de la Loi, 200,
Rue de la Loi, 200,
1049 Brussels.

Re : the EU Horizon 2020 “Law-Train” project.

Dear Ms. Mogherini, Dear Mr. Moedas,

Backed by 480 academics of all Belgian universities and 190 Belgian artists and cultural practitioners, we urged our national authorities to withdraw their partnership from the EU Horizon 2020 "Law-Train" project. Subsequently, we also have the honor to submit to your attention the objections that, we believe, must be raised against this project. We are well aware that we are neither the first nor the only ones to do so. In our special capacities, however, we feel we cannot stay aloof when the EU’s ethical and moral standing in the world is at stake. Joining the opposition to the project from EU civil society, we compiled a dossier in order to underpin our objections : “Why a partnership with the Israeli Police is indefensible” (48 pages). Please find it herewith.

Summary : Among our objections to the project one is of a principal nature : viz. our objection to the presence on the partners’ list of the Israeli Ministry of Public Security, esp. the National Police. The grave breaches of international law committed by the Ministry’s departments have been denounced time and again by UN agencies as well as by human rights organizations. Together with the IDF and the Shin Bet, its operatives are guilty of an infinity of daily crimes of dispossession, destruction, arrest, killing and humiliation, at any given moment (we documented these crimes in chapters 4 and 5 of the dossier). Hence the Ministry’s partnership in “Law-Train” deprives the project of its ethical and moral credibility, whatever the EC’s ethics checks as to its internal procedures and professed objectives. The project making the EU complicit in serious human rights violations its funding by the EC should be stopped forthwith.

1. International Law. With Resolution 2334 the UN Security Council once more strongly condemned Israel’s colonization policy for being "a flagrant violation under international law". In plain defiance of this resolution, Israel nonetheless responded by announcing the building of 6,000 more settlement units in the West Bank and East Jerusalem. In addition, the Knesset passed the so-called “Regularization Bill”. It legalizes colonies built on privately owned Palestinian land, colonists being free from now on to take whatever they want. The international community in general and the European Union in particular got once more a slap in the face.

Israel’s policies of dispossession of the land and the natural and human resources of the Palestinians together with its legalized systems of racial apartheid and oppression, are becoming more ugly every day.. This applies in particular to East Jerusalem which after its annexation in 1967 is being subjected to a continuous process of Judaization. Whilst living under the yoke of the Border Police, Palestinian Jerusalemites are treated as immigrants in their own city. Their houses are confiscated or demolished : 2016 alone saw more demolitions in East Jerusalem than any year since 1967. This policy is complemented by the continuous influx of new Jewish colonists. Recently, building permits have been approved for hundreds of Jewish houses in three East Jerusalem settlements, flouting once more international law. Not by accident, the heads of the EU’s diplomatic missions in Jerusalem and Ramallah in their recent, confidential report sent to your office, warn that “the situation in Jerusalem has never been so threatening since 1967.”

The transfer of Israel’s national public institutions to the “Arab” part of Jerusalem serves the same purpose of changing its ethnic-religious and political status. It is the case, for example, with the establishment of the Israeli Ministry of Public Security and the Headquarters of the National Police, partners in “Law-Train”. The same goes for the Ministry of Science and Technology. In June 2014, nevertheless, your predecessor, Ms. Catherine Ashton, accepted to sign the EU-Israel R&D Association Agreement "Horizon 2020” jointly with the Israeli Minister of Science and Technology. Taking place in occupied East Jerusalem, this instance of diplomatic compliance to the occupying power had been made possible in advance by the 2013 EC “Guidelines” on EU funding instruments (paragraph 11b). It is far from clear to us how this exemption as to the place of establishment of Israeli national agencies could be consistent with the EC’s professed “position of principle”, viz. “that only entities and activities within Israel’s pre-1967 borders are eligible for EU support” (briefing document to Ms. Ashton of July 24, 2013). Paragraph 11(b), in our view, amounts to a violation of (at least the spirit of) the Fourth Geneva Convention (art. 49 and 64) as well as of numerous Security Council resolutions. E.g. resolution 465 : “all measures taken by Israel to change the physical character, composition, institutional structure or status of… Jerusalem… have no legal validity”. The EC’s “flexibility” when applying its high principles in the case of the Israeli State is remarkable, to say the least. (See our Dossier, Ch. 1)

2. The Israeli Police Forces. In order to enforce “order" and “security”, the Ministry of Public Security has at its disposal the Israeli Police services (amongst them the Border Police and the Yoav Unit, the latter being charged with the demolitions of Bedouin villages in the Negev) and the Israel Prison Service (IPS). They have been denounced time and again by UN agencies (e.g. its Committees against Torture and against Racism, UNICEF, a.o.) as well as by many international and Israeli and Palestinian human rights organizations. The unremitting misdemeanors of the Israeli police and security forces are a matter of major concern for all of them.

In their daily “routine”, indeed, of persecuting, kidnapping, imprisonment and interrogation of Palestinian men, women and children, police and security forces along with the occupation army are guilty of racism, arbitrary and excessive violence, abuse and torture, terrorizing, collective punishments and summary killings. The presence of the Ministry and its services (the Israeli Prison Service included) as participants in an European R&D project like “Law-Train” necessarily legitimizes and normalizes practices amounting to serious human rights violations. The facts themselves are extensively documented, hiding therefore behind “ethical procedures” that do not take into account the wider human rights context, is not an acceptable option. (see Chapters 4 and 5 of the Dossier).

3. “Dual Use” ? The project’s aim is to optimize "cross cultural" interrogation skills for the benefit of the fight against international drug crimes. The EC informs us that “mechanisms have been put in place to prevent that Horizon 2020 funds are used for activities that could be contrary to international law”. The project itself “is meant to improve the existing interrogation practices of the consortia members as it is based on investigative interviewing, and more particularly the PEACE-model ‘best practice method’, recommended by the United Nations as the best model to prevent mistreatment and coercion and to safeguard human rights” (Mr. C.Moedas). However, the possibility that in the future methods and techniques obtained will be adapted and made applicable, one way or another, to coerced "anti-terrorism" interrogations of Palestinian political prisoners, cannot be excluded in advance. In view of the human rights record of the Ministry’s departments we believe mistrust is perfectly justified.

The suggestion though has been made that technical competences resulting from the project might bring about a more humane treatment of Palestinian prisoners (in 2016 they were almost 7,000, 536 of whom were being held under “administrative detention”, and some 400 minors). This hypothesis, however, fails to consider the ideological and political background of Israeli police and security “routine” offenses. This wider context being one of colonialism and institutionalized racism, harsh interrogation practices and even torture used against so-called “security prisoners” (minors included) do not merely aim (however misguidedly) at obtaining information and confessions. In fact, they are linked to other systematic malpractices, such as : humiliating and brutalizing people at checkpoints, terrorizing adults and children with night raids and unannounced army exercises, punishing them collectively, crippling youths by shooting them in the knee or limb, withholding the bodies of killed loved ones, forcing them to demolish their own homes, a “shoot to kill” policy, etc. They all are part of a conscious policy of keeping an occupied population into submission and stifling dissent or rebellion. At the same time, all kinds of violence are meant to be “transfer-advocating” (the Israeli journalist Amira Hass). I.e. making them “live like dogs” (Moshe Dayan, in 1967), this policy should finally induce the Palestinians to “voluntarily” leave “Greater Israel”. No wonder, for that reason, no initiatives have been reported from police or security operatives to humanize their interrogation methods and practices vis-à-vis the Palestinian population.

4. Institutionalized Racism and “Ethics. The "Ethical Guidelines and Procedures" of “Law-Train” require "that each partner respects the laws and regulations of the other participating partner countries", a requirement raised to being "fundamental to the conduct of the project." However reasonable it may seem at first sight, there is a big problem here as far as the coordinating country is concerned. Inter alia the UN Committee for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD), indeed, concluded that racial or ethnic-religious discrimination against "non-Jewish" citizens is deeply rooted in Israel’s legislation and juridical system. Adalah (The Legal Center for Arab Minority Rights in Israel), also, lists more than 60 “discriminatory laws” enshrining the unequal treatment of “non-Jews”. While the requirement of “respect” is also applicable to Israel’s own “laws and regulations”, the project’s “Ethical Guidelines” actually deny its partners their right to freedom of opinion and expression in the face of documented malpractices. Their consent being silently implied, European partners are made complicit in Israeli policies violating international law.

The "ethics checks" of the project before its implementation have been performed by the European Commission and the Belgian Catholic University Leuven. Currently, we are informed, “ethical aspects are constantly monitored by a specially-designated external ethics director [i.e. dr. Dr. Galit Nahari of the same Bar-Ilan University] who reviews all the deliverables and by regular technical reviews run by external independent experts” (Mr. C. Moedas). These checks, we understand, apply (1) to the “ethics of research” of the project : in the case of “Law-Train” e.g. the deontological issues at stake in the relationship between researcher and interviewee ; (2) to the “ethics of content”, i.e. its professed objectives and societal implications. We have no problems, here.

However, the partners of the project clearly have not been subjected to an ethics check. What is more, in the case of a project focused on policing techniques, a fundamental ethical evaluation is only achievable if the project is confronted with the wider, institutional, political and ideological context of the country in which it is launched and coordinated. In the case of "Law-Train", a policing project coordinated and checked by an Israeli university having close ties with the Israeli Security Agency (the Shin Bet) and partnered by the Israeli Police, the wider context is one of daily police misdemeanors and, more generally, of racist oppression and dehumanization of a native population. The presence, for that reason, of the Israeli Ministry of Public Security and its police among its partners deprives “Law-Train” of all ethical and moral credibility. (See Ch. 2)

5. EU “Dialogues”. We are deeply concerned about the inhumane living conditions imposed on the Palestinian people since 70 years. Being essential to what the Israeli journalist Amira Hass calls Israel’s "policies of cruelty", the crimes of Israel’s police and security forces have a crushing impact on the life of their victims. It is true that the EC claims that on the basis of “a wide-ranging mutually beneficial cooperation” (i.e. not on the basis of the binding rules of international law) the EU “engages in regular dialogue with Israel on issues relating to human rights”. Those dialogues, we are informed, “address a number of sometimes difficult human rights concerns”, regularly urging Israel to take measures “to prevent and address possible cases of torture and abuse” (your communication in the EP). One should consider though the facts on the ground. They tell us that for so many decades dialogue and engagement with the Israeli State in reality have been to no avail, did not have any impact. Violence, ill-treatment and abuses, torture (of children as well), oppression and dispossession, it all goes on and on, or better : it gets worse and worse. The same, for that matter, has been the case with the “peace process” : all the "peace talks" and the entirety of the “process”, even when it was in its zenith, rarely, if ever, slowed down the Israeli bulldozers or ended the unceasing ethnic cleansing of the Palestinians. Not for nothing, a book by a British writer is entitled “Disappearing Palestine”.

Confronted with Israel’s manifest disdain for international law and continuing serious human rights violations, EU policymakers nevertheless persist in pursuing a strategy that has long been proven bankrupt. Because of giving priority to their mutual economic, scientific and other advantages and refusing to put any real pressure on the Israeli governments, in public or in private, the EU against its better judgment stays committed to this failed strategy. To persist with it, though, boils down to Einstein’s idea of madness : to persist in doing the same and await different results.

The facts on the ground, indeed, allow only one honest conclusion : on the part of the Israeli political leaders dialogue and engagement were never more than a charade allowing them to continue violating the rules of international law and basic human rights, against everything and everyone. In the light of these facts, we, Europeans, priding ourselves on our “fundamental ethical principles” (summarized in Art. 2 of the EU-Israel Association Agreement and being called “an essential element” of the agreement) while maintaining in practice an unconditional, “special” and "close" relationship with the Israeli State, are inevitably (and not without reason) viewed as hypocrites by the rest of the world. At the same time, it should not surprise us that the EU loses its moral credibility in the eyes of more and more European citizens.

Conclusion. Ms. Mogherini, the presence of the Israeli Ministry of Public Security, with the Israeli police, in an EU R&D program is indefensible, legally, ethically and morally. We urge the European Commission, for that reason, to stop forthwith funding the compromised “Law-Train” project. This courageous decision would signal to Israel’s politicians and its public opinion that the EU effectively does no longer tolerate that the fundamental rights of the Palestinian people to a dignified life, equality, freedom and justice, continue to be willfully trampled upon. US policy taking an unpredictable turn nowadays, enforcement of the rules of international law is more than ever an European responsibility. The time for rhetoric - speeches, admonishments, concerns, warnings and even threats – and for ambiguity is long gone. All too long, indeed, the EU used “to make symbolic gestures or declarations which don’t change facts on the ground” (Prof. Shlomo Avineri). Concrete action is needed now, urgently, because “every additional day in which the occupation continues to exist is a day in which additional crimes are committed” (the Israeli journalist Gideon Levy).

A halt must be called to the injustices of which Palestinian children, women and men are victim day in day out. Wishing to make a contribution, however modestly, we drafted a detailed dossier. It is attached to this letter, but it can be also read online : http://www.bacbi.be/pdf/lawtraindossier_EN.pdf.

Thanking you for your attention and hoping for a favorable response to our aspirations, we remain

yours sincerely,

Herman De Ley,
Em.Prof. Ghent University (Belgium),

The Organizing Committee : Prof. Marie-Christine Closon (UCLouvain), Dr. Pascal Debruyne (UGent), Prof. Patrick Deboosere (VUBrussel), Prof. Lieven De Cauter (KULeuven), Em.Prof. Herman De Ley (UGent), Lieve Franssen (dirigent Brussels Brecht-Eislerkoor), Carl Gydé (director CAMPO), Prof. Perrine Humblet (ULBruxelles), Prof. Marc Jacquemain (ULiège), Raven Ruëll (metteur en scène).

This European démarche is backed by :

(a) Academic List :

Marco Abramowicz, assistant retraité (ULB) ; Johan Ackaert, Prof. (UHasselt) ; Dirk Adriaensens (z. ond.) ; Karolien Aelbrecht, assistent (UGent) ; Bissan Ahmed, ass. (ULB) ; Mateo Alaluf, Prof.Ém. (ULB) ; Andrea Allemeersch, em. (KHLeuven) ; Marie-Louise Andreux, Prof. (I.Saint-Luc) ; Jan Annaert, Prof. (UAntwerpen) ; Lieven Annemans, Prof. (UGent) ; Karel Arnaut, Prof. (KULeuven) ; Paul Aron, Prof. (ULB) ; Jean-François Bachelet, Prof. (ULiège) ; Jean-Pierre Baeyens, Prof. (VUB) ; Guy Bajoit, Prof. (UCL) ; Adrienne Bárdos-Féltoronyi, Prof.Ém. (UCL) ; Nicolas Bárdos-Féltoronyi, Prof.Ém. (UCL) ; Raoul Bauer, Prof.Em. (KULeuven) ; Tom Beckers, Prof. (KULeuven) ; Luce Beeckmans, Dr. (UGent) ; Joachim Ben Yakoub, onderzoeker (UGent) ; Pierre Bergmann, Prof.Ém. (ULB) ; Thomas Berns, Prof. (ULB) ; Jean-Louis Berwart (advocat) ; Berber Bevernage, Prof. (UGent) ; Serge Bibauw, researcher (KULeuven) ; Monique Biesemans, Prof.Em. (VUB) ; Jaak Billiet, Prof.Em. (KULeuven) ; Kjell Bleys, teaching assistant (UGent) ; Jan Blommaert, Prof. (UTilburg/UGent) ; Koenraad Bogaert, Dr. (UGent) Annie Boone, Prof.Em. (VUB) ; Sarah Bracke, Prof. (Harvard U/VUB/UGent) ; Herman Braet, Prof.Em. (UAntwerpen/KULeuven) ; Marjet Brangers, docente (VSPW-Gen) ; Geraldine Brausch, doctorante (ULiège) ; Eva Brems, Prof. (UGent) ; Jean Bricmont, Prof. (UCL) ; Maurice Bruynooghe, Prof. (KULeuven) ; Jacques Bude, Prof.Ém. (ULB) ; Jan Buelens, Prof. (UAntwerpen) ; Martin Buysse, Prof. (UCL) ; Ana Cabal Rodriguez, researcher (UAntwerpen) ; Beatriz Camargo, chercheuse (ULB) ; Hendrik Cammu, Prof. (VUB) ; Guy Campion, Prof.Ém. (UCL) ; Marie-Louise Carels, chercheuse retr. (ULiège) ; Anais Carton, chargée de mission (CBAI) ; Yves Cartuyvels, Prof. (USLB) ; Isabelle Cassiers , Prof. (UCL) ; Bambi Ceuppens, Dr. (Kon.MM-A) ; Paulo Charruadas, FNRS (ULB) ; Tom Claes, Prof. (UGent) ; An Cliquet, Prof. (UGent) ; Marie-Christine Closon, Prof. (UCL) ; Robert Cobbaut, Prof.Ém. (UCL) ; Mieke Coghe, docente (Luca SAGent) ; Dirk Coigneau, Prof. (UGent) ; Willem Cole, Docent (Luca SAGent) ; Eric Corijn, Prof.Em. (VUB) ; Trijntje Cornelissens, Prof. (UAntwerpen) ; Bert Cornillie, Prof. (KULeuven) ; Giselle Corradi, Dr. (UGent) ; Stef Craps, Prof. (UGent) ; Hanne Creupelandt, assistent (UGent) ; Andrew Crosby, chercheur (ULB) ; Frans Daems, Prof.Em. (UAntwerpen) ; Yves D’Asseler, Prof. (UGent) ; Marc David, Prof. (UAntwerpen) ; Luc De Baerdemaeker, Prof. (UGent) ; Sophie Debatty, language teacher (UNamur) ; Daniel de Beer, Prof. (USLB) ; Marco De Biase, Chercheur (ULB) ; Reynout De Bleser (lawyer) ; Filip De Boeck, Prof. (KULeuven) ; Jan De Boever, Prof.Em. (UGent) ; Xavier De Bolle, Prof. (UNamur) ; Patrick Deboosere, Prof. (VUB) ; Emeline De Bouver, doctorant (UCL) ; Ludo De Brabander (z. ond.) ; Marc De Broe, Prof.Em. (UAntwerpen) ; Pascal Debruyne, Dr. (UGent) ; Loes Debuysere, onderzoeker (UGent) ; Johan De Caluwe, Prof. (UGent) ; Lieven De Cauter, Prof. (KULeuven) ; Alain Deccache, Prof.Ém. (UCL) ; Gaby Deckmyn, postdoc (UAntwerpen) ; Hans Deckmyn, Prof. (KULeuven-Kulak) ; Tom Declercq, assistent (UGent) ; Tom Decorte, Prof. (UGent) ; André Decoster, Prof. (KULeuven) ; Thomas Decreus, onderzoeker (KULeuven) ; Yves De Deene, Prof. (USydney, AU) ; Hendrik Deelstra, Prof.Em. (UAntwerpen) ; Carine Defoort, Prof. (KULeuven) ; Marianne De Fossé, PhD student (VUB) ; Katrien De Graeve, Dr. (UGent) ; Johan Dehollander, Docent (RITCS) ; Catharina Dehullu, Prof. (UGent) ; Marc De Kesel, Prof. (Saint Paul U, Ottawa) ; Jan Dekeyser, Prof. (KULeuven) ; Sofie De Kimpe, Prof. (VUB) ; Sarah De Laet, chercheuse (ULB) ; Francis Delannay, Prof.Ém. (UCL) ; Herman De Ley, Prof.Em. (UGent) ; Annick Delfosse, Prof. (ULiège) ; Delphine del Marmol, PhD student (UNamur) ; Sarah Delputte, Dr. (UGent) ; Marc Delrez, Prof. (ULiège) ; Jan Gabriel Delrue, Prof. Em. (KULeuven) ; Jan De Maeseneer, Prof. (UGent) ; Hugo De Man, Prof.Em. (KULeuven) ; Gilbert De Mey, Prof. (UGent) ; Marc De Meyere, Prof.Em. (UGent) ; Matthieu de Nanteuil, Prof. (UCL) ; Dominiek Dendooven, historicus (UAntwerpen) ; Gita Deneckere, Prof. (UGent) ; Benoit Depaire, Prof. (UHasselt) ; Michael Depreter, collaborateur scientifique (ULB) ; Serge Deruette, Prof. (UMons) ; Cécile de Ryckel, Prof.Ém. (HE ICHEC-STLouis-ISFSC) ; Robert Deschamps, Prof. (UNamur) ; Gilles-Maurice de Schryver, Prof. (UGent/UPretoria) ; Olivier De Schutter, Prof. (UCL) ; Gérard de Selys, conseiller scientifique (ULiège) ; Florimond De Smedt, Prof. (VUB) ; Brecht De Smet, Dr. (UGent) ; Chantal De Smet, Prof.Em. (KASK) ; Myriam De Spiegelaere, Prof. (ULB) ; Vinciane Despret, Prof. (ULiège) ; Anne De Sutter, Prof. (UGent) ; Petra De Sutter, Prof. (UGent) ; Nils Detemmerman, researcher (KULeuven) ; Aleidis Devillé, docent (Thomas MoreHS) ; Philippe De Villé, Prof.Ém. (UCL) ; Isabelle Devos, Prof. (UGent) ; Jan De Vos, Dr. (UGent) ; John Devreker, Prof.Em. (UGent) ; Bruno De Wever, Prof. (UGent) ; Ludo De Witte (auteur) ; Jeroen Dewulf, Prof. (UGent) ; Roel Dieltiens, Prof. (Zücher Hochschule der Künste) ; Françoise Digneffe, Prof.Ém. (UCL) ; Anne-Marie Dillens, Prof.Ém. (USLB) ; Jo Dirix, former researcher (VUB) ; Ghaliya Djelloul, assistante/doctorante (UCL) ; Karel Dobbelaere, Em.Prof. (KULeuven) ; Philippe Donnen, Prof. (ULB) ; Ruddy Doom, Prof. Em. (UGent) ; Michael Drennan, Prof. (UGent) ; Colette Duez, Chercheur Qualifié FNRS (ULiège) ; Sophie Dufays, postdoctoral researcher (UCL) ; Valérie Dufour, Prof. (ULB) ; Jan Dumolyn, Prof. (UGent) ; Daniel Dumont, Prof. (ULB) ; Els Dumortier, Prof. (VUB) ; Jos Dumortier, Prof.Em. (KULeuven) ; Hugo Durieux, coörd. BPJ (VUB) ; Yves Eeckhout, Prof.Ém. (UCL) ; Mathias El Berhoumi, Prof. (USLB) ; Christian Eliaerts, Prof.Em. (VUB) ; Jan Engelen, Prof.Em. (KULeuven) ; Paul Everaert, Prof.Em. (UCLeuven-Limburg) ; Nadia Fadil, Prof. (KULeuven) ; Abdessalam Faraj, assistant teacher (ULB) ; Lucien Fastré, Prof. (UHasselt) ; Willem Flámeng, Prof.Em. (KULeuven) ; Katarina Fragoso, doctorante (UCL) ; Alain François, Prof. (ÉRGraphique) ; Bruno Frère, Prof. (ULiège) ; Jean-Marie Frère, Prof. (ULiège) ; Sylvie Gadeyne, Prof. (VUB) ; Pierre Galand, Prof.Em. (ULB) ; Rasha Gamie, researcher (VUB) ; Eric Geerkens, Prof. (ULiège) ; Marc Germain, Prof. (ULille-3) ; Michel Gevers, Prof.Ém. (UCL) ; François Ghesquière, chercheur (ULB) ; Sebastien Gillet, PhD student (UNamur) ; Pierre Gillis, Prof.Ém. (UMons) ; Cécile Giraud, doctorante (UCL) ; Joël Girès, assistant (ULB) ; André Gob, Prof. (ULiège) ; Corinne Gobin, Prof. (ULB) ; Toon Goedemé, Prof. (KULeuven) ; Henri Goldman (auteur) ; Luc Goossens, Prof.Em. (UAntwerpen) ; Patrick Goubau, Prof. (UCL) ; Jean-Claude Grégoire, Prof. (ULB) ; Marie Gribomont, Dr. (ISFSC, Brx & HEAJNamur) ; Mieke Grypdonck, Prof.Em. (UGent) ; Serge Gutwirth, Prof. (VUB) ; Guy Haegeman, Prof. (UGent) ; Philippe Hambye, Prof. (UCL) ; Malika Hamidi, Dr. (European Muslim Network) ; Maher Hamoud, researcher (UGent) ; Mejed Hamzaoui, Prof. (ULB) ; Dominique Hansen, Prof. (UHasselt) ; Florent Xavier Hardy, physician (ULB, St-Pierre Hospital) ; Rein Haudenhuyse, post-doc researcher (VUB) ; Kristin Hendrickx, Prof. (UAntwerpen) ; Stan Hendrickx, Dr. (UHasselt/PXL-MAD) ; Jan Hertogen (z. ond.) ; Hildegarde Heynen, Prof. (KULeuven) ; Terence Honoré, PhD student (UMons) ; Jos Hoogmartens, Prof. Em. (KULeuven) ; Jean-Luc Hornick, Prof. (ULiège) ; Dag Houdmont, assistant-chercheur (ULB) ; Xavier Hubaut, Prof.Ém. (ULB) ; Bernard Hubeau, Prof. (UAntwerpen) ; Perrine Humblet, Prof. (ULB) ; Mark Hunyadi, Prof. (UCL) ; Patrick Italiano, chercheur (ULiège) ; Patric Jacobs, Prof.Em. (UGent) ; Paul Jacobs, Prof. (ULB) ; Sigrid Jacobs, researcher (UGent) ; Marc Jacquemain, Prof. (ULiège) ; David Jamar, Prof. (UMons) ; Mieke Jans, Prof. (UHasselt) ; Herwig Janssens, Prof. (UHasselt) ; Jozef Janssens, Prof.Em. (KUB) ; Jürgen Jaspers, Prof. (ULB) ; Hilmi Kaçar, onderzoeker (UGent) ; Dan Kaminski, Prof. (UCL) ; Zeger Karssen, Prof. (ULB) ; Dimokritos Kavadias, Prof. (VUB) ; Bie Kentane, lector (VSPW-Gent) ; Sarah Kesenne, PhD student (Luca SAGent) ; Stefan Kesenne, Prof.Em. (UAntwerpen) ; Chris Kesteloot, Prof. (KULeuven) ; Farid Khelifa, research assistant (UMons) ; France Kittel, Prof.Ém. (ULB) ; Demir Köse, teaching assistant (UGent) ; Marieke Krijnen, PhD student (UGent) ; Pieter Lagrou, Prof. (ULB) ; Benjamin Lambert, assistant (UNamur) ; Maxime Lambrecht, Prof. (UCL) ; Liliane Lammens, docent (VSPW-Gent) ; Pierre Lannoye, Prof. (ULB) ; Bruno Lapauw, Prof. (UGent) ; Louis Larue, assistant/doctorant (UCL) ; Jean Leclercq, Prof. (UCL) ; Jérome Lechien, médecin doctorant (UMons) ; Vincent Legrand, Prof. (UCL) ; Giovanna Lelli, Prof. (UGent) ; Andreia Lemaître, Prof. (UCL) ; Gwen Lemey, projectcoördinator (UAntwerpen) ; Marc Lenaerts, Prof. (ULB) ; Matthieu Lenoir, Prof. (UGent) ; Annik Leroy, Prof. (ERGraphique) ; Daniël Libens, Docent (KASK Gent) ; Roland Libois, Prof. (ULiège) ; Matthias Lievens, Dr. (KULeuven) ; Maarten Loopmans, Prof. (KULeuven) ; Stéphanie Loriaux, Prof. (ULB) ; Fred Louckx, Prof.Em. (VUB) ; Nicolas Louis, maître de conférences (UNamur) ; Madeline Lutjeharms, Prof.Em. (VUB) ; Frank Maes, Prof. (UGent) ; Renaud David Maes, Prof. (ULB) ; Olivier Malay, doctorant (UCL) ; Jacques Malchaire, Prof.Ém. (UCL) ; Ico Maly, Prof. (UTilburg) ; Jan Maniewski, Dr. gep. stagemeester (VUB) ; Pierre Marage, Prof. (ULB) ; Christian Maroy, Prof. (UCL) ; Albert Martens, Prof.Em. (KULeuven) ; Marco Martiniello, Prof. (ULiège) ; Godelieve Masuy-Stroobant, Prof.Ém. (UCL) ; Xavier May, chercheur (ULB) ; Petra Meier, Prof. (UAntwerpen) ; Stien Mercelis, Dr. (UAntwerpen) ; Johan Mertens, Prof.Em. (UGent) ; Peter Mertens, Prof. (KULeuven) ; Francine Mestrum (z. ond.) ; Bart Meuleman, Prof. (KULeuven) ; Leander Meuris, Prof. (UGent) ; Reine Meylaerts, Prof. (KULeuven) ; Lies Michielsen, Dr. (UAntwerpen) ; Herman Mielants, Prof. (UGent) ; Jacques Moriau, chercheur (ULB) ; Marc Mormont, Prof.Ém. (ULiège) ; Frank Moulaert, Prof. (KULeuven) ; Cécile Mounier, doctorante (UCL) ; D. Nakh., PhD (UGent) ; Patrice Neirinck, Prof. (ULB) ; Benoit Nemery, Prof. (KULeuven) ; Wim Nerinckx, Dr. (UGent) ; Ides Nicaise, Prof. (KULeuven) ; José-Manuel Nobre-Correia, Prof.Ém. (ULB) ; Joël Noret, Prof. (ULB) ; Ans Nys, docente (Luca SAGent) ; Liesbet Nys, Dr. (KULeuven) ; Michel Olyff, member (RBAcademy) ; Stijn Oosterlynck, Prof. (UAntwerpen) ; Jan Orbie, Prof. (UGent) ; Nouria Ouali, Prof. (ULB) ; Christine Pagnoulle, Prof. (ULiège) ; Maurice Pasternak, Prof.Ém. (La Cambre) ; Geert Pauwels, Prof. (VUB) ; Jacques Pauwels, historicus Jef Peeters, onderzoeker (UC Leuven-Limburg) ; Wouter Peeters, vol. researcher (UGent/ULB) ; Daniel Peraya, Prof.Ém.(UCL/UGenève) ; Benoît Périlleux, Prof. (UCL) ; Jaak Perquy (filosoof) ; Johan Persyn, diensthoofd Communicatie (HOGent) ; Dominique Pestiaux, Prof.Ém. (UCL) ; Jean Pestieau, Prof.Ém. (UCL) ; Petra Pferdmenges, teacher and researcher (SLArchitectuur) ; Karen Phalet, Prof. (KULeuven) ; Luc Pien, docent (Luca SAGent) ; Jean-Marie Pierlot, Prof.Ém. (UCL) ; Danielle Piette, Prof. (ULB) ; Rik Pinxten, Prof.Em. (UGent) ; René Plisniers, chef de travaux retr. (UMons) ; Thomas Pongo, rtassistent (UCL) ; Hervé Pourtois, Prof. (UCL) ; Veerle Provoost, Prof. (UGent) ; Johan Quaegebeur, Prof. (KULeuven) ; Stefan Ramaekers, Prof. (KULeuven) ; Maria Ramon, Prof. (HÉCharlemagne, Liège) ; Marc Reding, Prof. (UNamur) ; Luc Reychler, Prof.Em. (KULeuven) ; Nathalie Rigaux, Prof. (UNamur) ; Frank Roels, Prof.Em. (UGent) ; Michel Roland, Prof.Ém. (ULB) ; Pieter Rombouts, Prof. (UGent) ; Muriel Sacco, chercheuse (ULB) ; Mark Saey (filosoof) ; Pieter Saey, Prof.Em. (UGent) ; Hichem Sahli, Prof. (VUB) ; Omar Jabary Salamanca, Dr. (UGent) ; Saraa Saleh, Dr. (KULeuven) ; Francis Santens, onderzoeker (UGent) ; Marie Scheirlinck, v. docente (VSPW-Gent) ; Rita Schepers, Prof.Em. (KULeuven) ; Stefan Schepers, visiting professor (Northampton&Henley BS, UK) ; Lionel Schiavolin, PhD student (ULB) ; Christiane Schomblond, Prof.Ém. (ULB) ; Simone Schuiten (ÉSABruxelles) ; Maria Sercu, onderzoeker (UGent) ; Stefaan Smis, Prof. (VUB) ; Frank Stappaerts, docent (FVGAntwerpen) ; Michel Staszewski, c.S. (ULB) ; Reinhard Steennot, Prof. (UGent) ; Isabelle Stengers, Prof.Ém. (ULB) ; Bernard Stevens, researcher (UCL) ; Jean Stillemans, Prof. (UCL) ; Lucienne Strivay, Prof. (ULiège) ; Marcelle Stroobants, Prof. (ULB) ; Linda Suy, researcher (RITCS) ; Erik Swyngedouw, Prof. (UManchester) ; Marc Swyngedouw, Prof. (KULeuven) ; Nozomi Takahashi, PhD (UGent) ; Fauzaya Talhaoui, researcher (UAntwerpen) ; Jan Tavernier, Prof. (UGent) ; Joseph Thas, Prof.Em. (UGent) ; Amandine Thiry, doctorante (UCL) ; Jean-Pierre Thys, Prof. (ULB) ; Anaëlle Tilborg, PhD (UNamur) ; Anya Topolski, post-doc (KULeuven) ; Tom Toremans, Prof. (KULeuven) ; Heleen Touquet, Prof. (KULeuven) ; Thomas Tousseyn, Prof. (KULeuven) ; Ward Treunen, member e.c. (BT) ; Monika Triest, Prof.Em. (UAmsterdam) ; Amélie Truwant, Prof. (UGent) ; Jean-Claude Twizere, chercheur (ULiège) ; Tomas Van Acker, onderzoeker (UGent) ; Guy Van Assche, Prof. (VUB) ; Simon Van Belle, Prof. (UGent) ; Jean Paul Van Bendegem, Prof. (VUB) ; Lucas Van Bortel, Prof.Em. (UGent) ; Petra Van Brabandt, Dr. (SL Antwerpen) ; Henri Van Bree, Prof. (UGent) ; Wilfried Van Craen (Hogeschool Gent) ; Pierre-Étienne Vandamme, doctorant (UCL) ; Marie Vandekerckhove, Prof. (VUB) ; Norbert Van den Bergh, Prof. (UGent) ; Gie van den Berghe, Prof. (UGent) ; Dorien Vanden Boer, onderzoekster (UGent) ; Nella van den Brandt, PhD, staff member (UGent) ; Michel Vandenbroeck, Prof. (UGent) ; Jef Van den Broeck, Prof.Em. (KULeuven/Artesis Antwerpen) ; Joost van de Oord, Prof. (KULeuven) ; Guido Vanden Wyngaerd, Prof. (KULeuven) ; Marc Vandepitte (filosoof) ; Robrecht Vanderbeeken, Dr. (VUB) ; Martial Van der Linden, Prof. (ULiège) ; Nicolas Van der Linden, Prof. (ULB) ; Dirk Vandermeulen, Prof. (KULeuven) ; Christian Vandermotten, Prof. (ULB) ; Erik Van der Straeten, Prof.Em. (UAntwerpen) ; Helena Van der Vorst, Prof. (HSVives) ; Ludwig Vandevelde, Prof. (HOGent) ; Patrick Van de Voorde, Prof. (UGent) ; Lieselot Vanduynslager, onderzoeker (KULeuven) ; Barbara Van Dyck, Dr. (KULeuven) ; Maarten Van Dyck, Prof. (UGent) ; Piet Van Espen, Prof. (UAntwerpen) ; Thomas Vangeebergen, PhD student (ULiège) ; Patrick Van Gelder, Prof. (UGent) ; Geert Van Goethem, docent (Luca SA Genk/RITCS) ; Karel Vanhaesebrouck, Prof. (ULB) ; Eric Vanhaute, Prof. (UGent) ; Michel Vanhoorne, Prof.Em. (UGent) ; Daniel Vanhove (auteur) ; Denise Vanhove, Prof. (Collège V-L-B) ; Geert Van Hove, Prof. (UGent) ; Marc Vanhove, Prof.Ém., (ERGraphique) ; Jacques Van Keymeulen, Prof. (UGent) ; Raphael Van Laere, gew. voorzitter (KA Oudheidkunde v.België) ; Axel van Lamsweerde, Prof. (UCL) ; René Van Malder, ens. retr. (H.E "Ichec-IstLouis-Isfsc) ; Wim Van Neer, Prof., (RBINS/KULeuven) ; Jacques Vanobbergen, Prof. (UGent) ; Geertrui Van Overwalle, Prof. (KULeuven) ; Philippe Van Parijs, Prof. (UCL) ; Willie van Peer, Prof.Em. (LMU, Munich) ; Jan Van Peteghem, Prof. (KULeuven) ; An Van Raemdonck, PhD student (UGent) ; Marc Van Ranst, Prof. (KULeuven) ; Thomas Van Riet, Prof. (KULeuven ; Christophe Vanroelen, Prof. (VUB) ; Loes van Schie, onderzoekster (UGent) ; Jo Vanstraelen, lector (UHasselt) ; Steven Van Wolputte, Prof. (KULeuven) ; Elisabet Van Wymeersch, onderzoeker (UAntwerpen) ; Esther Venrooij, tutor atelier (Luca SAGent) ; Claude Veraart, Prof.Ém. (UCL) ; Ruddy Verbinnen, alg. coörd. (UABrussel) ; Jacques Verbist, Prof.Ém. (UNamur) ; Koen Verboven, Prof. (UGent) ; Aviel Verbruggen, Prof. (UAntwerpen) ; Gust Verbruggen, Prof.Em. (UGent) ; Barbara Verdonck, docent (Vives HS) ; Lieselot Verdonck, Dr. (UGent) ; Annelies Verdoolaege, Postdoc (UGent) ; Jef Verhoeven, Prof.Em. (KULeuven) ; Marie Verhoeven, Prof. (UCL) ; Pierre Verjans, Prof. (ULiège) ; Patrick Verlaak, head of Visual Arts (Luca SAGent) ; Griet Vermeesch, Prof. (VUB) ; Lode Verreyen, assistent (UGent) ; Tom Verschaffel, Prof. (KULeuven-Kulak) ; Henricus Verschure, Em.Prof. (KULeuven) ; Karl Verstrynge, Prof. (VUB) ; Sigrid Vertommen, Dr. (UGent) ; Arnaud Vervoort, Prof. (UNamur) ; Pierre Viart, Prof.Ém. (HUDERF-ULB) ; Hendrik Vos, Prof. (UGent) ; Liliane Voyé, Prof.Ém. (UCL) ; Jan Vromman, teacher/research (RITCS) ; Jan Vranken, Prof.Em. (UAntwerpen) ; Else Walravens, Prof.Em. (VUB) ; Jan Wastiels, Prof. (VUB) ; Dominique Weerts, researcher (ECES) ; Mieke Wellens, docente (KASK Antwerpen) ; Sébastien Wertz, doctorant (UCL) ; Vincent Wertz, Prof. (UCL) ; Georges Wildemeersch, Prof. (UAntwerpen) ; Roos Willems, onderzoeker (UAntwerpen) ; Ria Willemsen, PhD (VUB) ; Patricia Willson, Prof. (ULiège) ; Diana Wynants, docente (KA Maasmechelen) ; Jan Wyns, docent (VSPW-Gent) ; Karim Zahidi, Prof. (UAntwerpen) ; Sami Zemni, Prof. (UGent) ; Zainab Zomlot, PhD- (VUB) ; Marc Zune, Prof. (UCL).

(b) Cultural List :

Karim Abraheem, photographe ; Malika Ahali, guide, MAS museum and Red Star Line museum ; Rachida Aziz, ontwerpster, Art@Azira ; Rudi Barnet, Théâtre et Cinéma ; Ginette Bauwens, filosoof ; Thomas Bellinck, theatermaker ; Laila Ben Allal, photographer ; Chokri Ben Chikha, Performance/Theatre, KASK/Faculty of Fine Arts University College Ghent ; Rachid Benissa, calligraphe et peintre ; Joachim Ben Yakoub, Pianofabriek ; Luk Berghe, artist ; Annick Blavier, plasticienne ; Thomas Blommaert, uitgeverij, EPO ; Charles Blondeel, film ; Brussels Brecht-Eisler Koor, muziek (www.bbek.be) ; Kristien Buyse, photography, KASK ; Inez Carsauw, singer ; Lucas Catherine, auteur ; Saddie Choua, filmmaakster ; Luc Cleiren, muziek ; Robby Cleiren, actor, de Roovers ; Bruno Colet, plasticien ; Marie-France Collard, réalisatrice ; Jean Michel Corre, auteur ; Andrea Croonenberghs, actress singer presenter ; Benjamin Deboosere, Film & Photography ; Sarah Deboosere, film ; Werner De Bus, mime clown, Giebus Animatie-Mimegroep ; Pieter De Buysser, literature, theater ; Koen De Cauter, Musician ; Jean-Marc De Coninck, Photographe ; Frank De Crits, poetry, brussels poetry collective ; Peter De Groof, textielrestaurator, Koninklijk Museum voor het Leger ; Ugo Dehaes, dance, Kwaad Bloed vzw ; Andrea de Keijser, performance ; Nora De Kempeneer, De Markten ; Pascale Delagnes, musician-comedian ; Jacques Delcuvellerie, metteur en scène et directeur artistique du Groupov ; Bernard Delmotte, conservator/restaurator muurschilderingen, stuc ; Roland Denaeyer, graphiste ; Wannes Deneer, theatre and music, Tuning People ; Didi de Paris, literature ; Jan De Smet, muzikant ; Annelys de Vet, designer (Disarming Design from Palestine, founder) ; Jozef Devillé, Film director ; Anne De Vos, fotografie, Vermeylenfonds ; Pieter De Vos, filmmaker ; Hildegard De Vuyst, KVS ; Charles De Wachter, sculpture, ACM ; Lebuïn D’Haese, kunstenaar ; Roel Dieltiens, cellist ; Veerle Dieltiens, piano, Luca-Arts ; John Dobrynine, théâtre ; Charles Ducal, Dichter des Vaderlands ; Philippe Dumoulin, directeur Théâtre du Public ; Laurent d’Ursel, artiste ; Ewoud Dutellie, social worker, Victoria Deluxe vzw ; Sarah Eisa, theatermaker ; Fikry El Azzouzi, schrijver (proza en theater) ; Rachida El Garani, Film Director ; Cecilia Lisa Elicechce, Dance ; Youssef El Mousaoui, Comedian ; Tristan Faes, opera ; Evelyn Fischer, artist, independent ; Jean-Marie L.M. Flémal, Poetry, literary translation ; Lieve Franssen, koordirigent, Brecht-Eislerkoor/ ShantiShanti ; Anne Ganzevoort, writing, bookdesign ; Jonas Geirnaert, television ; Herman Geys, artist, interartcity ; Ruud Gielens, acteur-regisseur ; Mireille Gleizes, pianiste, School of Arts, Ghent ; Jan Goossens, KVS ; Johan Grimonprez, film, HISK ; Frieda Groffy, poet ; Luuk Gruwez, literature, poet ; Carl Gydé, directeur CAMPO, Kunstencentrum CAMPO ; Guy Gypens, Kaaitheater ; Tarek Halaby, Dancer/Performer/Teacher, P.A.R.T.S / Rosas - Brussels ; Kristien Hemmerechts, writer ; Hilde Hendrickx, Backstage catering, freelance catering ; Nathalie Hendrickx, beeldend kunstenaar ; Sébastien Hendrickx, podiumkunsten, Etcetera ; Anke Hintjens, musician, independent ; HoedGekruid vzw, Woord en beeld ; Eva Houdova, réalisatrice, monteuse ; Wilfried Huet, artist, publisher of "GAGARIN the Artists in their Own Words" ; Sarah Hutse, organisator, ’t Uilekot vzw ; Elisabeth Ida, Photography ; Mohamed Ikoubaân, Performing & Visual Arts, MOUSSEM ; Joris Iven, poet ; Remah Jabr, theater, freelance ; Erwin Jans, dramaturg ; Mich Jonckheere, concertathome ; ‘KleinVerhaal’ (Hans Dewitte) uit Oostende ; Mustafa Kör, schrijver ; Hélène Lacrosse, theatre director ; Rachida Lamrabet, writer ; Naomi Lapar, Law ; Marc Laquière, Federatie Marokkaanse Verenigingen FMV ; Ludwig Lemaire, beeldend kunstenaar ; Frie Leysen, festival director ; Michéle Liebman, music, Academy ; Jean-Pierre Lipit, plasticien ; Garrett List, compositeur/pédagogue /interprète ; Rudy Luijters, artist (owner Luijters – Devet) ; Walter Maes, music ; Franz Marijnen Theatre/ Opera Director ; Palobo Marisol, asbl ialma Musica ; Kobe Matthys, Performance ; Catherine Mayer, peintre ; Erwin Mortier, author ; Mouedden Mohsin, président, Les Ambassadeurs de la Paix ; Ramsey Nasr, actor/poet ; Inge Neefs, auteur ; Els Nouwen, beeldend kunstenaar ; Rudy Nuyens, graphic ; Michel Olyff, painter and illustrator, member Royal Belgian Academy ; Jo Op de Beeck, graficus/fotograaf ; Marisol Palomo, directrice, La Tentation ; Maurice Pasternak, artiste, principaux médiums : gravure et pastel Jacques Pauwels, historicus ; Ani Pavi, photographer ; Axl Peleman, muzikant ; Chloé Périlleux, actrice, compagnie Lune et l’autre ; Marijke Pinoy, actrice-regisseuse ; Alain Platel, choreograaf ; Philippe Pourbaix, Engraving puppetstheater, Artistes contre le mur, asbl ; Marianne Pousseur, singer actrice, Khroma ; Anne Provoost, auteur ; Jacob Rajchman, photographe ; Hugo Raspoet, vertaler ; Katrien Reist, art worker, Jubilee ; Marc Reynaerts, theater, Theater De Kreet ; Barrack Rima, illustrateur ; Henri Roanne-Rosenblatt, cinéma, littérature ; Mong Rosseel, zanger, acteur ; Raven Ruëll, Groupov ; Aya Sabi, blogger ; Raymond Saublains, photographe ; Salvador Sanchis, dance ; Marie Scheirlinck, voormalig cultureel werkster ; Marc Schepers, beeldend kunstenaar ; Vital Schraenen, theater ; Luc Schuiten, architecte/artiste ; Asmaa Seba, artist-photographer ; Jonas Slaats, performance/lecturing ; Bart Slegers, acteur, Toneelgroep Amsterdam ; Krie Smet, beeldend kunstenaar ; Tom Struyf, theatre, MARS vzw ; Koen Stuyck, writer ; Daan Stuyven, music ; Linda Suy, performing arts ; Rita Teugels, beeldend kunstenaar ; Willy Thomas, actor, KVS ; Jean Marc Turine, cinéaste ; Dirk Tuypens, actor ; Tine Van Aerschot, Theater ; Tom Van Bauwel, freelance actor ; Alain van Crugten, littérature, théâtre ; Stefan van den Broeck, literature ; Ilja van de Wateringen freelance lightdesigner ; Stef Van Eyck, beeldend kunstenaar ; Geert Van Goethem, producer/regisseur, RITCS ; Tine Van Goethem, multidisciplinary, BOZAR ; Dirk Vanhaeren, Ceramic arts ; Anita Van Huffel, poëzie en kinderboeken ; Johan Van Hulle, music ; Toos van Liere, plasticienne ; Rob Van Vlierden, Poetry, dorpsdichter Overpelt ; Georgia Vardarou, choreographer ; Georges Vercheval, photographie ; Véronique Vercheval, photographe ; Frank Vercruyssen, actor/drama teacher, tg stan ; Eva Vergaelen, writer ; Ignaas Vermeiren, musician ; Klaus Verscheure, videast ; Luk Vervaet, auteur ; Geert Veuskens, documentary, Docwerkers vzw ; Laurence Vielle, poète ; Judith Vindevogel, music/theatre, WALPURGIS ; Erik Vlaminck, writer ; Bart Vonck, dichter/schrijver/vertaler ; Cees Vossen, podiumkunsten, MOUSSEM ; Jan Vromman, documentary, independent ; Gérard Weissenstein, Chanson ; Anne Westerduin, illustrator ; Viona Westra, musician, independent artist : KAN-KAN ; Dominique Willaert, theater en film, Victoria Deluxe ; Diana Wynants, keramiek ; Luc Wynants, dirigent and singer-songwriter, Kontrarie.

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